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Bulloch Biological No. 2 Model



This is a page devoted to the various microscopes made by the famous American Maker, Walter H. Bulloch. Its content attempts to picture and describe, to the extent known, as many models of Bulloch Microscopes as possible. In addition, where available, the author has attempted to show the evolution of these instruments, i.e. changes in certain models. This has been a challenge because there are only two known catalogs (1878 and 1890) plus scattered publications and advertisements. Furthermore, no engravings or illustrations of earlier Bulloch microscopes seem to exist. Because of the Internet, sales of previously unknown or little known examples of his work have revealed some additional information, and when possible the information derived therein is included. Furthermore, thanks to the kindness of many collectors and photographers, the author has had the privilege of personally inspecting many of these instruments. The work was made more difficult in that Bulloch did not always place serial numbers on his stands and also did not always sign them. Even more misleading, sometimes serial numbers and patent dates were not in the usual location (on the top of the foot), but were elsewhere, such as the underside of the foot or the underside of the stage; some microscopes on record as 'unsigned' may actually have this information 'hidden' in such an unusual location. Another confusing point are the serial numbers of certain instruments sold by Meyrowitz, his New York agent and later successor, as these stands had later features than the higher serial-numbered stands; this is discussed in more detail below. When available, links are provided to pages describing the Bulloch microscopes described in more detail on this website, and elsewhere; some of the Bulloch stands pictured on this website in detail belong to other collectors who have been kind enough to share them with you. The information contained herein then is likely incomplete, but is improving all the time. I hope it provides more information in one place than was easily available before. I would welcome any additional information to improve these pages. The following table allows you to jump to a particular model without scrolling through the entire page, simply click on a picture to do so.   Please keep in mind that identification of certain stands may depend on minor or subtle differences-see the discussions below for details and follow the respective links. Also keep in mind that in the case of some models, no engraving or photograph was available at the time this page was last updated. In these cases only descriptions are noted.   Of the 24 different models shown here, I have been able to locate extant examples for only half of them.  

Walter Bulloch's microscopes were reviewed and pictured in the various Journals and Books of the times, including the JRMS. Bulloch designs were highly respected, and his Biological model was copied and sold in the 1880's by the London firm of Watson & Sons as the Watson-Bulloch Biological microscope.

Also available on this site are pages about known surviving stands by Bulloch and Meyrowitz, arranged by serial number, and also a review of signatures on stands by Bulloch and Successors, and other pertinent pages listed on the articles page.

c. 1871(?)
Bulloch 32 stand
Earliest Known Signed Bulloch Microscope with lowest known serial number. Likely made before the Great Chicago Fire of October, 1871.
c. 1873-1877(?)
Bulloch Sector stand
c. 1877-1891
Bulloch Congress stand
A1 or
c. 1870's-1880's
Bulloch A stand
c. 1877-18?
Bulloch A B stand
AB or
c. 1870's-1880's
c. 1870's-1880's
c. 1870's-1880's
Bulloch D stand
c. 1870's-1880's
Bulloch E stand
c. 1879-1880's
Bulloch Professional stand
c. 1880's-1891
Bulloch professionaL stand newer version
c. 1889-1891
Bulloch Professional No 2 stand
Bulloch First Lithological stand
c 1880's-?
c. 1880's-1891
Bulloch Professional Lithological stand
c. 1879-80 to 1890
Bulloch Biological stand
c. 1880's-1890'sBulloch Biological No. 2 stand
BIOLOGICAL No. 2 (later renamed the 'BULLOCH BACTERIOLOGICAL' by Meyrowitz after Bulloch's death)
c. 1880's-1891
Bulloch Histological stand
c. 1880's-1891
Bulloch Histological No 2 stand
c. 1870's-1880's
Bulloch F Student stand
F (Student)
c. 1885
Bulloch New Student stand
c. 1886-1889
Bulloch Student stand
c. 1889-1891
Bulloch Student Microscope final form
(Final Form)
c. 1880's-1891
Bulloch Physicians
c. 1887-?
Bastin-Bulloch Microscope

For an updated history of Bulloch microscopes see here.

For a tabular chronology of Bulloch's locations(cities) and work (alone or working for someone else or with someone else), see the Bulloch Chronology Page.

For a partial listing of Bulloch instruments with known serial numbers see the Bulloch Microscope Serial Number Page.


#32Records from a Chicago Business directory indicate that Walter Bulloch was working in Chicago from no later than 1867, and he stated it was since 1866. No records which enable the dating of signed Bulloch microscopes between 1866 and the Great Chicago fire of October 1871 seem to exist. After the fire, he left to go work with Tolles in Boston and returned about 1872. The earliest known Bulloch advertisements (1868) do not show illustrations and do not describe his microscopes in detail. A reference in the RMS Journal, of 1880, vol III, p 1067 states that he was making his 'Sector' Model from 1873. The serial number on the engraving of that stand is 52. In 2022, we became aware of, and acquired, number 32(left). Number 32 is a binocular compound microscope closely resembling higher class microscopes sold by Pike in the 1870's. This is no mere coincidence since when Bulloch left Pike, he was their foreman. As discussed on the page describing this microscope, it is likely that the date of construction of this microscope predates the Great Fire of October 1871.

The Congress was made from about 1877. These are the earliest stands for which there are good descriptions and indeed an engraving. Bulloch's earliest known surviving stands have been identified in most cases by their signature, and by engravings in publications. Bulloch did not hold patents on his earliest instruments. His first patent, in 1879 was for a microscope with separate swinging substage mirror and condenser tailpieces; the microscope pictured in the patent drawing had a long lever micrometer screw focus. Neither of these features were present on his earlier microscopes pictured in early ads, but were present in the engravings of the 1878 catalog. There were frequent delays in publications in the 19th century, which can lead to some confusion as to dating Bulloch stands. One of the earliest Bulloch Microscope ads was for the 'A' stand in the 1879 edition of the American Journal of Microscopy and Popular Science. This stand is pictured in the 1878 Bulloch catalog as his 'Small Best Stand' and indeed was his third rate stand after the A-1, and the A B.

Bulloch was famous for constantly changing his designs, and therefore, as time passed his microscopes changed. Sometimes these changes were minor and subtle, such as a change in the shape of the foot, or more significant, like the use of a saddle fitting to support the stage, starting about 1877.

Some of his early stands were given letters, (A1, AB, A, B, C, D, E, and F) with the exception perhaps of the 'Sector Microscope' .   For a while he combined the letter designation with names, e.g. the 'A 1 Congress.'  


By the time he died, Bulloch stands had evolved to incorporate his latest design changes, including the dual-swinging tailpieces, long-lever fine focus, mechanical stage with controls projecting upwards and allowing full rotation, and eventually, a rack and pinion control for the mirror height, the latter being a feature not seen on any other stands that I am aware of.  His stands continued to be produced after his death, initially by Van Mehrens, and supposedly by Meyrowitz in New York (see below).  Bulloch's later stands were given names instead of numbers (Congress, Professional, Professional No. 2, Biological No 1, Biological No 2, Histological No 1, Histological No 2, Student, etc).


As noted, Bulloch's early stands were named with letters and in some cases with a number attached.  His biggest and best stand was referred to as the 'A 1'; there were then stands lettered AB and A through F with the F stand designated as the Student Stand.  Later models had names and in some cases a number (No.).   Unlike some other makers who called their best microscope 'No.1' and second best 'No 2,' Bulloch used these as a chronological designation of different models; hence the Biological was followed by the later but more complex Biological No 2, and the Professional, was followed later by the less complex Professional No 2.  In addition, some earlier versions of some stands were retained, (hence the original 'New' Biological was renamed to the 'Biological No 1'), and in some other instances a completely different stand replaced it; an example of this is the 'Student' stand which had at least 4 versions, apparently none made at the same time as the others; another example is the large Professional which was at first a single-pillared stand and then, of the same size, but double-pillared.   It is notable that unlike the case for the Biological and Histological models, Bulloch never called his bigger more complex Professional Model the No 1. There was simply a 'Professional' and a 'Professional No 2'. This may have to do with the fact the the 'Professional' was initially a large single pillar instrument, and changed later to a 2-pillar instrument; this would lead to some confusion if the two pillar instrument were numbered, as it was technically the second version of the large Professional model. Since the single-pillar version was at the time of the double pillar model obsolete, just like in the case of the Student stands, there was no need to have designations for an instrument no longer made, and referring to the new version of the Professional as the Professional No 1 would not have been consistent with his practice of using those numbers chronologically. Lastly, Meyrowitz, initially an agent for Bulloch, continued to sell his type of microscope after Bulloch died. During this time they modified the designs a bit(most importantly to change his straight rack and pinions to spiral), and they renamed his Biological No. 2 the 'Bulloch Bacteriological' model. Any Bulloch microscope with a diagonal rack can be assumed to be a Meyrowitz product, produced after Bulloch had died.


There are a group of microscopes, produced and/or modified after Bulloch's death, which incorporate features which Bulloch never used during his lifetime. These stands are documented on the Main Bulloch Serial Number Page and also on a page devoted just to the meyrowitz signed stands. These stands are usually signed with the words 'Meyrowitz, Maker, New York' and 'Bulloch Patent.' These were clearly sold after Bulloch died in November of 1891. They usually incorporate angular or 'spiral' rack and pinion controls (which Meyrowitz stated was one of their modifications to Bulloch's designs). There are also two different microscopes with the serial number 201, again suggesting two different runs of serial numbers. Furthermore, number 112 and number 117 have too low a serial number to have been made in sequence with other Bulloch stands because they are the Histological model, a form not produced until sometime after 1880, not shown in the 1878 catalog, not mentioned in the 1879 price list in Frey's book, and certainly not in the same time period as other stands in this serial number range. For example, serial number 132, an older form of Professional, was no longer made when the Histological was introduced.

Please click on the illustrations for enlarged images and, in some cases, more information!

NUMBER 32 (c 1872(?)

Bulloch #32
This example, with the lowest serial number I am aware of (as of December 2021) is not pictured nor described in any publication that I am aware of. Remembering that Bulloch worked for Pike for many years, we note that this stand strongly resembles one of the Pike models of the 1870s. The differences include the flat equilateral tripod with single pillar, as the Pike was mounted on a Y-shaped tripod with two flat uprights. It is likely that before Bulloch developed his own designs, he based his stands on other models likely including the ones he knew so well from working for Pike.

THE 'SECTOR MICROSCOPE' (c 1873-1877(?) )

Bulloch Sector Scope
This model was described in the JRMS, vol 3 of 1880 pp1067-1068, shown in figure 133, page 1068, but again, was an out of date description, as it is not shown nor described in the 1878 Bulloch Catalog. The article states it was first exhibited in 1873. I am unaware of any surviving example of this stand. I note the engraving shows serial number 52, which might help date that number to 1873 (?).

THE 'LARGE BEST A1 CONGRESS' OR SIMPLY 'CONGRESS' (1877-1891, in various versions).

Evolution of the Congress Microscope The first version of the Congress was at first called the 'First Class A1' or 'Large Best Stand-A1' according to the 1878 Catalog. According to RMS publications, it was first made in 1877. The term 'Congress' was used by Bulloch sometime following the Microscopical Congress, (of which Bulloch was a member), after their meeting in August of 1878. Over the years, certain features changed. Although the first version was produced in 1877, his patent for these instruments was that of 1879. These large stands marked the beginning of his trademark double swinging tailpieces, one for the mirror and one for the condenser, which could be moved together as a unit or separately. Another feature, not in the initial model, which Bulloch felt was very important, was that the rotation mechanism for the tailpieces was separated from the stage itself which was supported by a 'saddle fitting.' This feature was not part of the early Congress models, which had the stage in contact with the axle through which the tailpieces rotated. By separating the stage on a saddle, he felt this minimized any vibration or displacement of the stage that other maker's tailpieces would have caused had they been moved with a specimen on the stage. Initially used on the A1-Congress, 'Congress Junior,' and 'A B' ('Diatom')stands, these features, a saddle fitting, and dual tailpieces, were later found on the 'Professional,' 'Professional No 2,' 'Biological No 1,' and 'Biological No. 2' Models. Some of the 'Student' models had a saddle fitting as well. These features were not found on the 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E', 'F', 'Histological', 'Physician's', 'Bulloch-Bastin' stands.   A feature limited to only the Congress and the Professional stands was an angled extra support to the saddle piece for added rigidity; this is not present on the early version shown in the engraving, as it did not have the saddle piece either.

The first version of the Congress featured a Mechanical stage with concentric controls projecting horizontally from under the stage support ring.

The second version also had horizontally oriented controls, but they were integrated into the top of the stage, making it easier to change stages, but still limiting the range of rotation.

The third version, described in an article in the Journal of the RMS in 1882, used an elegant concentric control projecting upward from the stage itself, thereby allowing 360 degree rotation. Bulloch reported that this was derived from a design of Spencer many years earlier.

Another type of stage common on several models was the glass stage with a gliding slide carrier. This depended initially on a single ivory-tipped pressure point to keep it in place and flat on the stage as it was moved about, but later Bulloch made this a two point support for greater stability and less chance of unintended movement. Note that eventually both types of stage were commonly available on the Professional Model and later on the Biological Models as well. Some examples were supplied with both types of stages as was the case for the Professional, serial number 138, and also for the Professional No. 2, serial number 412.

The substage also changed. Initially the front tailpiece, holding the condenser was 'Z-shaped,' and the one holding the mirror was straight and tubular with an additional two articulations. Later they were both Z-shaped and finally in later versions both tailpieces were rectangular and straight. At first the mirror was on a triply articulated arm. later this became a straight tailpiece without extensions, and finally, no later than 1890, had a rack and pinion adjustment for the mirror (separate from the condenser rack and pinion).

Initially announced for the Biological No 2, a condenser fitting that could altogether swing out of the axis, or could have only certain parts swing out, was announced in the Journal of the RMS in 1884, and was incorporated into some of the later Congress stands as well. The version of this swing-out condenser for the Biological No. 2 is pictured in detail on this website on the Meyrowitz 'Bulloch Bacteriological' pages here.

Another change was in the foot. Calibrated rotation of the foot was a feature on all the Congress stands. Initially however, there was no locking knob, a feature soon added.


Bulloch AB ScopeThe second to largest microscope that Bulloch produced, once he started to make the A 1 stand, was shortly thereafter termed the 'Congress Junior' model*, and it is likely the 'A B' stand pictured in the 1878 catalog is indeed that model, as it is described as 'similar to the large stand but smaller.' It is also described in that catalog as the 'Diatom stand' which fits its description as the 'Congress Junior'*. A cross-sectional view shows it to be quite similar to the A 1 stand, except for a thinner stage with gliding slide support instead of mechanical stage. Bulloch reports that this stage could be completely turned upside down, slide underneath, to allow the greatest degree of oblique lighting to be used. The original version of the Congress Junior would also have the same tubular mirror support with double articulating bars at the end.

This was the precursor of the later, two-pillared version of the 'Professional.' One unique feature of the diatom stage was two separate hold down points, each acting on a separate piece of glass on opposite ends of the slide holder; I have not found a surviving example of this exact stand, hence only the diagram is shown here.

* As reported in the Proceedings of the Fourth annual meeting of the American Society of Microscopists of 1881.

THE 'PROFESSIONAL'(c. 1879-1880's (first form) and 1880's- 1891(second form).

Bulloch Professional Microscopes

There is no mention of the 'Professional Model' in the 1878 catalog. The earliest reference to it I could find was in the Bulloch Price list published in Frey in 1880, the list being dated to 1879. In this description there is only one version of the 'Professional' described, and it is a single-pillar version. This description fits the Professional Model seen on the web page of this site nearly perfectly as seen here.  A later, (much smaller) version of the single-pillar Professional was first advertised about 1889, and was also pictured in the 1890 catalog; this smaller single-pillar version was called the 'Professional No 2' (See the next entry).   In the 1890 catalog the 'Professional Model' had become a double pillar microscope, a smaller version of the Congress, essentially, a second version of the 'Congress Junior' or 'A B' previously mentioned. I would assume that Bulloch realized that calling the A B the 'Junior' made it sound trivial and therefore later called it the 'Professional,' as the large single Pillar professional was phased out.

The only differences between the early version of the 'Professional' and the later 2-pillar version relate to the pillars and foot. There are, of course two pillars on the later version, and although both could rotate on the foot, only the 2-pillar later version had graduations for this rotation, with the footplate slightly changed to accommodate these engraved numbers. The stands are otherwise the same. Either could be monocular or binocular, they had identical construction and could accommodate different (but equal diameter) stages. For a detailed page devoted to only the first version of the professional see here.from Frey, 1880

'PROFESSIONAL NUMBER 2'(c 1889-1891).

bulloch prof No 2

The 'Professional No. 2' was a much smaller and much lighter stand than either the single or double pillar 'Professional.' In fact, as is seen in the illustration to the right, the 'Professional No.2 is identical in every way to the 'Biological No 2' except for a slightly longer tube length and its supporting part of the limb.

Bulloch Prof 2 and Bio 2 EngravingsAlthough some have suggested that all single-pillared 'Professional' models should be called 'Professional No 2's,   I strongly disagree. After studying the literature, and the actual measurements of these stands, it is clear that the early single-pillared stand was just as big as the later 2-pillar version, and much larger than the later 'Professional No 2.' The early 'Professional' had identical size components as the later 2-pillar model including overall height, stage size, and thickness of the limb.  The   brace for the saddle fitting was also the same. For additional images, with the Professional No. 2 next to its engravings, and also the much larger early version of the 'Professional' next to the 'Biological No 2 (a stand almost identical to the Professional No 2), see here.   In addition, note the actual description of the Professional from Frey, which refers to it as a 'Professional' and notes it is a single-pillared instrument, and that it is '16 inches high when arranged for use,' which is the exact same size as pictured in the later 1890 catalog for the two pillar version, and far higher than the 13 inch high 'Professional No.2. Also note that the early 'Professional' has a much heavier arm with the triangular buttress (brace) support coming down to the saddle fitting, not found on the 'Professional No. 2.'

Bulloch A standTHE 'A' OR SMALL BEST STAND (c. 1870'S-1880'S)

The 'A' Stand was Bulloch's third-class microscope at the time of his first catalog in 1878. He advertised it in journals published in 1879. I know of only one example surviving and it was in poor condition and missing its substage. It had an old fashioned nose piece type of fine-focus which would be quite inferior to his A1 and AB instruments.

THE 'B' STAND (c.1870'S-1880'S).

Bulloch B Scope This was the largest of Bulloch's stands with 'Crouch-type' or 'English-type' of curving foot. This foot was also seen on the 'D' and 'E' models. It had the rotating beveled glass stage. The substage could be 'plain or adjustable.' We have no engravings of this scope and no extant examples that I am aware of. In many ways it sounds like it resembles stand 'D' though the exact differences are unclear.

THE 'C' STAND (c. 1870's-1880's).

Bulloch C ScopeBulloch C Scope This stand is mounted on a flat equiaxed tripod with a short single pillar support and a glass stage with gliding slide holder. The substage support is a simple ring attached to the underside of the stage, but this ring was removable to allow oblique lighting. The author would like to thank Allan Wissner for allowing me to share images of this microscope, serial number 87 which was sold in 1876. I would like to point out to the reader the striking resemblance of the 'C' stand of Bulloch to the Zentmayer Army Hospital microscope; it is clear that Bulloch was emulating that stand in the 'C' and that Zentmayer clearly came up with the design first-see this image comparing the two. For more images of this example, see the link to Allan's Website.

THE 'D' STAND (c.1870'S-1880'S)

Bulloch D standThis stand is very similar to the 'B' model. Because of a lack of engravings and images of the 'B' stand, differences between the two are unknown at this time. There must have been some major difference as the cost between them was quite substantial. The substage support of the D is a simple ring attached to the underside of the stage. Note the long tube-length, nose piece fine focus, and 'English' foot.

THE 'E' STAND (c. 1870's-1880's)

Bulloch E standThe 'E' is similar to the D model except the stage is rectangular. It is still glass-covered and with a gliding slide-holder. The substage support is a simple ring attached to the underside of the stage. Again there is a short nose piece fine focus and the foot is the 'Crouch' or 'English' type.


Bulloch First Lithological ScopeBulloch Professional PetrographicAccording to an article published in the American Geologist, April 1889, p225, the first American Petrographic microscope was made by Walter Bulloch in 1880 and had the serial number 139, and is pictured to the left. As can be seen in the photograph in that article, it was identical to the single-pillar Professional model as seen on this website, except for the nosepiece fittings and some of the substage apparatus. The article goes on to describe the evolution of Bulloch's 'lithological' microscopes through at least three changing designs. To my knowledge, no example of any of them is in any public collection and I have never seen one come up for sale. At least one is held in a private collection. The 1890 catalog has two models, the 'Professional Petrological Microscope' on twin pillars, as seen to the right, and the 'Standard Petrological Microscope,' for which there are no images available. It would seem there were may have been three or more different Bulloch petrographic stands through the years. It seems likely that some other petrographic stands still exist in private collections, but I have been unable to locate any so far. Note the 'Professional Lithological (aka 'Professional Petrographical') microscope is built on the same plan.

THE 'NEW BIOLOGICAL', LATER CALLED THE 'BIOLOGICAL NO 1' and after Bulloch died, simply the 'BIOLOGICAL' by Meyrowitz

(c. 1879/80-1890)

Bulloch New Biological This model, as reported in the 1880 Journal of the RMS, was 'a more recent model than the Congress' and 'Patented 1879.'  Since the Congress was reportedly made starting in 1877, it follows that the first Biologicals were made sometime thereafter, probably starting 1879, but no later than 1880. The lowest serial number for the Biological that I have a record for is number 121.  Noting that 139 is known to be from 1880, and also noting the patent date of 1879 is engraved on number 121, a starting date of about 1879 is consistent with this. The Biological's features included a short single pillar on a flat tripod foot, dual swinging tailpieces, a saddle fitting to support the stage (not seen in any model in the 1878 catalog, and not seen in the 1879 patent either), and long-lever fine focus. The tube length was five inches, but with draw tube could extend it to ten. The tailpieces on the biological were usually zig-zag or S-shaped. Although the substage was on a separate tailpiece from the mirror, its adjustment was by manually pushing it up or down; rack and pinion adjustment of the substage was one of the later Biological No. 2's improvements.

(later, when modified by Meyrowitz, called the 'NEW BULLOCH BACTERIOLOGICAL')

(c. 1880-1890's)

bulloch bio 2 The Biological No 2 was a more complex stand than the Biological No 1. This is unlike the Professional and Histological stands, where the No 2 was less complex. This later stand featured the straight tailpieces. The example seen here, renamed the 'BULLOCH BACTERIOLOGICAL' was one sold by and modified by Meyrowitz, and has diagonal rack and pinion focusing, for instance. See the Bulloch Bacteriological pages for more details about this example. Meyrowitz renamed this modified Biological No. 2, the 'New Bulloch Bacteriological' and it was still offered for sale in the 1894 Meyrowitz Catalog as such, noting that Bulloch had died in 1891.


Bulloch Histological MicroscopeThe Histological was one of the simplest of Bulloch's microscopes to use a saddle fitting for the stage to isolate it from the movement of the single swinging substage. It was also the cheapest to have a condenser fitting on the tailpiece. Like the Histological No 2, coarse focus by rack and pinion, fine by long lever screw. A major difference between the two was the ability to rotate the stage and change stages on the Histological model.  In addition, this model had a condenser support which was designed to accept an objective as a condenser, and had a cone diaphragm. A setscrew allowed this condenser fitting to be centered. The mirror was planoconcave, and could move up and down its supporting tailpiece, as well as rotate above the stage for illuminating opaque objects. This histological model was not shown in the 1878 Bulloch catalog.

A Histological Bulloch microscope was mentioned in the American J of Microscopy and Pop Science Vol IV 1879, p99, but this is likely a typographical error as I can find no engraving from that year, and I found several other historical errors where the word 'histological' and 'biological' were used interchangably to refer to Bulloch microscopes. An example of this error is in Watson's report of their microscope 'based on Bulloch's Histological' but the engraving clearly shows it is based on the Biological.

THE HISTOLOGICAL NO 2. (1880'S-1891)

Bulloch Histological No 2 MicroscopeIn contrast to the Biological No 2, the Histological No 2, was simpler than the Histological Model. The limb, foot, and upright supports were of painted iron with the optical parts and stage of polished brass. Coarse focus by rack and pinion, fine by long lever screw. The plain stage had a wheel of apertures on its underside. The mirror was planoconcave, and could move up and down its supporting tailpiece, as well as rotate above the stage for illuminating opaque objects.  The stage was fixed, and not isolated by a saddle fitting.

The author is grateful to Mr. Mark Stedman for providing images of this microscope.

THE 'F' OR 'STUDENT' STAND (c. 1870's-1880's)

bulloch F student standBulloch produced at least three different student stands and this one, the 'F model is the earliest we have records of. This microscope is similar to the E stand except the stage is plane with stage clips. Again the nosepiece is fitted for fine focus and the foot is the 'Crouch' or 'English' type. The substage support is a simple ring attached to the underside of the stage. I know of no extant examples.


new student microscope This instrument, apparently the second of three or four known 'student' designs, is not listed in the 1878 catalog, the 1890 catalog or the 1879 list from Frey. The only engravings of it appear in the English translation of 'The Microscope in Botany' by Behrens, published in 1885, and in an advertisement in 'The Microscope, an Illustrated Monthly Journal' from the same year. By the 1890 catalog, the Student microscope was a much simpler and cheaper model (see final form below). This microscope arises on a very short single pillar with small uprights at its top, much like the Biological models, but much shorter. A black-painted flat tripod supports the pillar. It has a round but fixed stage, which can accept clips, or as an option the gliding stage slide-carrier as shown here.

There is a shallow dovetail slot machined into the underside of the stage to accept substage apparatus, which would have slid in from the front to back. The stage is supported by a saddle, isolating it from the movement of the swinging tailpiece, making it the cheapest of the microscopes so equipped. This saddle fitting screws to a part of brass of the fine focus casing. The microscope differs from the Histological model in that there is no provision for a condenser fitting on the tailpiece.

Coarse focus is by straight rack and pinion, fine focus by very fine threaded screw acting on the stem. The main optical tube is five inches long, excluding nosepiece and ocular. There is a long draw tube, equal in length to the main tube.

The microscope is notable for the lack of a serial number anywhere on the instrument and also for the location of the signatures of 'W. H. Bulloch, Chicago, Ill.' on the right side of the arm, and 'Meyrowitz Brothers, New York' on the left side of the arm.

This is a very well-made microscope. The example shown here is the only example of this exact model that I have seen.

'STUDENT' MODEL (Third Form, after 1885-c. 1889)

new student microscope later version Bulloch student microscoopeThis instrument, apparently the third of four known 'student' designs, is not listed in the 1878 catalog, the 1890 catalog or the 1879 list from Frey. By the 1890 catalog, the Student microscope was a much simpler and cheaper model (see below). You will note the limb on the example shown here is slightly different from the 'New Student' model noted just above this entry, being thicker, but not as heavy as any of the other models to use a saddle fitting. The stand also features the newer straight tailpiece instead of the zig-zag shape found in the 'New Student' above. Like the 'New Student it has no provision for a condenser on the tailpiece. It has a round but fixed stage with clips (these clips are a modern replacement in the top example, original in the bottom example) and a cylinder is affixed to the underside to accept substage apparatus. The stage is supported by a saddle, isolating it from the movement of the swinging tailpiece. Because this model has a long lever fine focus, the attachment of the saddle is much simpler than the microscope shown just above this one. The mirror can be adjusted up or down on its tailpiece. The microscope differs from the Histological model in that there is no provision for a condenser fitting on the tailpiece, the tailpiece is rectangular rather than having a ring shape at its top, and the saddle fitting is anchored to a protruding piece of brass from the limb, which makes the entire limb thinner than the Histological model. An example of this microscope was offered for sale on E bay and the seller has kindly granted me permission to show his photographs of the stand here on my website.   A second example was sold on Ebay in October of 2014 by William Burnett who has kindly allowed me to show his images of that example of the Bulloch Student Microscope (3rd version), a slightly different example of the third form; an image of this other example of the student model is the lower example to the left.   The differences between that example and the other one pictured here are minor and discussed on the Bulloch Student Model 3rd Form pages.

THE STUDENT (Final Form, c 1890-1891)

final form of Bulloch student microscopeThis simplest of all known Bulloch stands, which replaced his 'New Student' Model shown above, had coarse focusing by pushing or pulling the main optical tube. This then was a much simpler and cheaper instrument at less than half the cost of the 'New Student' ($14 vs $30 with one eyepiece). The limb inclines between uprights arising directly from, and cast into, the foot.  Fine focus was by a fine screw tilting the stage. There was a wheel of apertures attached to the underside of the plain stage. The concave mirror could swing over the stage for illuminating opaque objects. It had a draw tube.  Again, I have yet to find an example.  

THE PHYSICIAN'S, (1880'S-1891)

bulloch physiciansThis all brass instrument is slightly larger than the Histological No 2. The foot was a flat tripod with one of the feet longer than the other two. Like the Histological No 2, coarse focus by rack and pinion, fine by long lever screw. The plain stage had a wheel of apertures on its underside. The mirror was planoconcave, and could move up and down its supporting tailpiece, as well as rotate above the stage for illuminating opaque objects. Note however that the construction is simpler than his more expensive stands with the axis of rotation not isolated from the stage as there is no saddle piece.


Bastin-Bulloch Microscope First pictured in The Western Druggist, Vol IX, 1887, this is one of the Bulloch microscopes, like the 'New Student' stand which did not appear in Bulloch's Catalogs.   It was subsequently noted in the American Monthly Microscopical Journal of February 1888, and also in the Journal of the RMS.  It combines the typical Bulloch features of an asymmetrical Y-shaped foot and swinging mirror with axis in the plane of the specimen, with the parallel linkage fine focusing popularized by Gundlach, Seibert, Lietz, Zeiss and others. Coarse focusing is by sliding the tube. There is a wheel of apertures disk built into the underside of the stage. Like many of Bulloch's stands, the mirror tailpiece can be rotated so that the mirror is above the stage, to illuminate opaque objects. According to the 'Western Druggist,' these scopes were 'manufactured on the order of the publishers of the Western Druggist' which implies they were also the distributors for these stands. This scope was supposedly developed for pharmacognosists (pharmacists who worked with medicinal plants).   I have not identified a surviving example of this stand to date.